Emilio Ros

Emilio Ros

Spain - Barcelona


Dr. Emilio Ros served as the creator and leader of the Lipid Unit, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service at Hospital Clínic, Barcelona until 2016. Currently, he holds the position of Emeritus Researcher at the Institut de Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona. Additionally, he is a former Principal Investigator and a current member of the CIBEROBN Group at Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid.

During his postgraduate training from 1970 to 1976 in the United States (New York and Boston), Dr. Ros obtained the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Board of Gastroenterology. He played a pivotal role as a founding member of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA) and was the founder and editor of its official journal, Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis. He is an esteemed member of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS), American Society of Nutrition, and American College of Cardiology. From 2000 to 2005, he served as the president of the Ibero-Latin American Atherosclerosis Society (SILAT).

Dr. Emilio Ros's outstanding contributions to the fields of nutrition, lipidology, and atherosclerosis have garnered global recognition, as he has been acknowledged as one of the top 1% most cited and influential scientists worldwide by Clarivate Analytics from 2018 to 2021. His extensive research portfolio includes 530 original articles, 95 reviews, and 30 editorials published in renowned journals. Additionally, he has contributed 90 book chapters, showcasing his breadth of knowledge and expertise. Notably, his Google Scholar index stands at 113, and he possesses an ORCID identifier (0000-0002-2573-1294). To honor his remarkable scientific career, Dr. Emilio Ros has received several prestigious awards, including the Best Scientific Career in Nutrition from the Danone Foundation in 2013, the SEA (Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis) in 2014, and the Catalan Nutrition Centre in 2015. One of his notable accomplishments was leading the nutritional intervention in the groundbreaking clinical study PREDIMED, which focused on the Mediterranean diet for primary cardiovascular prevention.


- IDIBAPS (Emeritus Researcher)
- Member of the Nutrition Group, American College of Cardiology
- Member of the Nutrition Group of the SEA
- Member of the Scientific Committee of the Mediterranean Diet Foundation
- Member of the Steering Committees of the PREDIMED and PREDIMED-Plus studies.

Areas of expertise

- Genetic hyperlipidaemias
- Preclinical atherosclerosis (carotid ultrasound and endothelial function)
- Nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular risk and cognitive impairment
- Mediterranean diet
- Nuts and dried fruit


Lifestyle choices to prevent cognitive decline and dementia

Lifestyle choices to prevent cognitive decline and dementia

A consequence of population aging is an increased prevalence of age-related disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD) and other dementias. Cognitive decline, a harbinger of dementia, and all-type dementia are a leading cause of disability and an increasing challenge to health-care systems worldwide. Recently, anti-amyloid immunotherapy has been approved for early AD, but the clinical benefit of these drugs is modest and treatment has been associated with noticeable safety risks, thus there is a pressing public health need for effective preventive strategies. According to a 2020 report of a Lancet Commission on dementia prevention, there are 12 specific potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia: educational achievement, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, alcohol abuse, hearing loss, traumatic brain injury, depression, social isolation, and air pollution.[1] Some of them are intrinsic part of lifestyle and/or may be greatly influenced by its changes, particularly those that are also cardiovascular risk factors. Of note, dietary habits are not even mentioned in the Lancet review, probably because of many uncertainties in spite of much epidemiological research. Over the past decade, systematic reviews by expert panels have concluded that the evidence is generally inadequate to conclude that the risk of cognitive decline and dementia can be modified by the two key lifestyle components diet and physical activity.[2] Healthy, plant-based dietary patterns with proven efficacy against vascular aging, such as the Mediterranean diet, have been examined as exposures for outcomes of cognition/dementia/AD in many long-term prospective studies, with results that tend to be positive in Mediterranean cohorts and null in non-Mediterranean countries. Reasons for these discrepancies may be that in most epidemiologic studies only baseline exposure is considered in spite of many years of follow-up and a critical salutary Mediterranean diet component, such as virgin olive oil, is little consumed outside the Mediterranean area. Randomized trials of the Mediterranean diet or its key foods/nutrients conducted in aged cohorts for outcomes of cognitive function usually have been positive when lasting more than 2 years and, particularly, when targeting populations at risk of cognitive impairment or with memory complaints. Ongoing research continues to enhance our knowledge of the lifestyle factors that promote successful cognitive aging.

Keywords: Cognitive decline, dementia, vascular risk, Mediterranean diet.

Livingston G, et al. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet 2020;396:413–446. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30367-6.

Krivanek TJ, et al. Promoting successful cognitive aging: A ten-year update. J Alzheimer Dis 2021;81:871–920. Doi: 10.3233/JAD-201462.